Course outlines -- detailed results
Diablo Valley College Course
DENTE-240: Introduction to Dental Ceramics 
The techniques of manipulation for single units of porcelain bonded to metal including opaquing, building, firing, grinding, glazing, and staining. 
Note: This course to be taken in the first semester. 
General Information
Department: Dental Technology 
Division: Biological and Health Science 
Units: 2.00 
Grade Code: Letter grade 
Repeatability: 0 
Max day class size: 20 
Max night class size: 20 
Number of Hours
Per Semester
Lecture: 18.00
Laboratory: 54.00
Activity: 0.00
By Arrangement
Lecture: 0.00
Laboratory: 0.00
Activity: 0.00
Objectives/Student Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to:

  1. Operate a porcelain furnace to properly fire dental porcelains.
  2. Properly metal finish frameworks for Opaque according to the manufacturers instructions.
  3. Properly prepare copings and frames for the degas process.
  4. Manipulate opaque, body and incisal porcelains while contouring porcelain fused to metal restorations.
  5. Assess the accuracy of model and die work previously constructed by another technician.
  6. Bake or fire contoured dental porcelains, glaze, stain and polish full-contoured porcelain fused to metal restorations.
  1. Vocabulary and Introduction
    1. Tooth composition
    2. Tooth surfaces and ridges
    3. Contour as it relates to ceramic crowns
      1. Interproximal contacts
      2. Occlusion
      3. Gingival health
      4. Esthetics
  2. Porcelain furnace operation
    1. Degassing procedure
    2. Pyrometer readings
    3. Rate of climb
  3. Porcelain manipulation
    1. Opaqueing procedure
    2. Porcelain stacking procedure
    3. Porcelain baking
    4. Porcelain glazing (natural and paint on)
  4. Custom characterizing
    1. Internal staining
    2. External staining
    3. Hairline fractures
  5. Porcelain Occlusion
    1. Cusp to fossae relationship
    2. Eccentric occlusal contacts
    3. Lateral excursive movements
Lecture, Demonstration, Discussion, Guest speakers 
Reading 1: Read about opaqueing and be able to describe the process of deoxidizing metal ceramic frames and the chemical reaction between opaque and metal understructure. 
Reading 2: Read about opaque and be able to describe and define the three primary purposes of the opaque porcelain. 
Writing, problem solving, performance 1: Write a one-page essay describing how shade matching, color control and characterization are among the most vital aspects of ceramic restoration development. 
Writing, problem solving, performance 2: Write a one-page narrative on a current dental ceramic technique, material or alloy from the Trends and Techniques magazines available in the Diablo Valley College Library Dental Technology section. 
Sample One: Prepare porcelain frame designs and copings: (a) Metal finish copings to the appropriate thickness, (b) Degas non-precious alloys, (c) Stack and contour incisal and body porcelain, (d) Bake stacked porcelain in a porcelain furnace. 

Sample Two:

Answer the following questions: (a) Describe two methods of removing moisture from dental porcelain. (b) Describe the difference between natural glaze and artificial glaze, (c) Describe the opaquing process.


Frequency of Evaluation:

Evaluations will adhere to the DVC "Fairness in Grading" guidelines and will include as a minimum:

  • Evaluation of students within the first quarter of the course and notifying student of the results

  • Counting a final examination for no more than one-half the course grade

  • Basing final grades on at least three students' tests and/or reports


Sample Textbook. See the current course syllabus or for the actual course textbook.
Book One
Author: Lacy, Alton 
Title: The Construction of the Ceramo-Metal Restoration: Principles and Techniques (Classic) 
Publisher: University of California, SF 
City: San Francisco, CA 
Year: 1982 
Book Two
Author: Department of the Air Force 
Title: Dental Laboratory Technology, Fixed And Special Prosthodontic And Orthodontic Appliances. AF Pamphlet 162-6, Vol. 111. (Classic) 
Publisher: Department of Air Force 
City: Headquarters U. S. Air Force, Washington, D C 
Year: 1991 
(1) Lab coats, (2) safety goggles, (3) writing materials 
Approval Date
On File 
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